1960 Pacific typhoon season

The 1960 Pacific typhoon season had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1960, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

1960 Pacific typhoon season
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJanuary 30, 1960
Last system dissipatedDecember 20, 1960
Strongest storm
NameShirley
  Maximum winds250 km/h (155 mph)
(1-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure910 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions39
Total storms30
Typhoons19
Super typhoons2 (unofficial)
Total fatalities>2,869
Total damageAt least $69 million (1960 USD)
Related articles

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator, and west of the International Date Line. Storms that form east of the dateline and north of the equator are called hurricanes; see 1960 Pacific hurricane season. Tropical storms formed in the entire west Pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical depressions in this basin had the "W" suffix added to their number.

Systems

Tropical Depression Ivy

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
 
DurationJanuary 30 – February 3
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (1-min) 1000 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Depression Jean

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
 
DurationMarch 7 – March 9
Peak intensity45 km/h (30 mph) (1-min) 1004 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Storm Karen

Tropical storm (JMA)
Category 1-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationApril 21 – April 27
Peak intensity140 km/h (85 mph) (1-min) 990 hPa (mbar)

An area of disturbed weather in the Philippine Sea moved westward and organized into a tropical depression on April 22. It moved northwestward through the Philippines, strengthening quickly to a typhoon on the 24th due to its small size. Karen turned to the northeast, and despite favorable conditions, rapidly weakened until dissipation on the 26th. Karen left 56 dead in the Philippines, left 7,000 homeless, and caused $2 million (1960 USD) in crop and property damage.

Typhoon Lucille

Typhoon (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationMay 27 – June 2
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (1-min) 996 hPa (mbar)

Lucille was identified as a weak tropical depression on May 25 to the east of the Philippines. Tracking northwestward, the system failed to develop and warnings on it were discontinued on May 27. At the same time, a second system began organizing along the west coast of Luzon. The two systems ultimately merged into one over the Philippines between May 28 and 29. Now tracking northeastward, the system re-intensified and became a tropical storm on May 30. Lucille attained its peak intensity later that day with winds of 85 km/h (55 mph). As it accelerated over open waters, the system brushed the islands of Iwo Jima and Chichi-jima before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone on June 1.[1] The remnants of Lucille were last noted on June 4 near the International Date Line.[2]

Between May 27 and 29, heavy rains fell across much of Luzon as Lucille developed. These rains, amounting to 406 mm (16 in) in the suburbs of Manila,[3] triggered destructive floods that left some areas under 4.6 m (15 ft) of water.[4] The worst of the floods took place during the overnight hours of May 28 to 29. During that time, hundreds of homes were swept away and an estimated 300–500 people, including at least 80 children, were killed.[4][5] Monetary losses from the floods exceeded $2 million.[6]

Typhoon Mary

Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationJune 2 – June 11
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (1-min) 980 hPa (mbar)

A trough of low pressure spawned a tropical depression in the South China Sea on June 3 and moved slowly westward. Favorable conditions allowed it to quickly strengthen into Tropical Storm Mary, and after turning northward it attained typhoon status on the 7th. Mary continued to intensify to a 90 mph (140 km/h) typhoon just before making landfall 20 miles (32 km) west of Hong Kong on the 8th. After weakening while moving northeastward over China, the storm restrengthened over the Western Pacific to a typhoon on the 10th. It passed near Okinawa, weakened, and accelerated to the east until it became extratropical on the 13th.

Also known as Bloody Mary, the typhoon was the worst to hit Hong Kong in 23  years (since the worst typhoon on the record of Hong Kong hit on 2 September 1937). Its 14.12 inches (359 mm) of rain, mudslides, and strong winds caused extreme damage across Hong Kong and southern China, leaving over 100 dead and over 18,000 homeless. The only positive aspect of the storm was its rainfall, which helped end a severe drought in the colony. An additional 1,600 people were killed following more landslides triggered by the remnants of the storm.[7]

In addition to its impact in Hong Kong, Mary brought heavy rains and flooding in Taiwan, especially in the capital city of Taipei. Moderate crop damage was seen to the rice crop. Four fishermen drowned off the island's southern coast, but there were no fatalities on the island. Despite its effects, the name Mary was not retired.

Typhoon Nadine

Typhoon (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationJune 2 – June 11
Peak intensity110 km/h (70 mph) (1-min) 985 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Olive

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationJune 21 – July 1
Peak intensity230 km/h (145 mph) (1-min) 950 hPa (mbar)

On June 23, a tropical depression developed to the east of the Philippines. It entered nearly ideal conditions as it moved to the west-northwest, and, just 42 hours after forming, reached peak intensity of 145 mph (233 km/h). Due to lack of inflow from the archipelago to its west, Olive weakened to a 125 mph (201 km/h) typhoon at the time of its eastern Philippine landfall. It rapidly weakened while crossing to a tropical storm, but restrengthened into a typhoon in the South China Sea. It turned to the west, and struck southern China on June 29 as a 80 mph (130 km/h) typhoon. Olive rapidly weakened over land and the northern Gulf of Tonkin and dissipated on July 1.

A storm surge of 6–8  feet flooded much of Manila, causing extensive property and transportation damage. Rains, amounting up to 203.2  mm (8  in) triggered flooding and numerous landslides. About 80 percent of the crops in southeast Luzon were destroyed by the flooding, and 404 people were killed. At least 32,000 buildings were destroyed by the storm, resulting in $30  million in damages. In addition, nearly 60,000  people were left homeless in the period after the storm's passage. During rescue attempts, many coastal defense force ships were either sunk or ran aground due to 7.3 m (24  ft) swell produced by Olive.[8]

China and Hong Kong received heavy rainfall from Olive, causing moderate crop damage, though there were no reported casualties there.

Typhoon Polly

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationJuly 17 – July 28
Peak intensity215 km/h (130 mph) (1-min) 950 hPa (mbar)

Polly hit near Beijing.

Tropical Storm Rose

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationJuly 24 – July 29
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (1-min) 1000 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Shirley

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationJuly 27 – August 6
Peak intensity250 km/h (155 mph) (1-min) 910 hPa (mbar)

On July 29, a tropical depression formed to the east of northern Luzon. Moving to the northwest, it encountered favorable conditions for development, and rapidly intensified to a 155 mph (249 km/h) super typhoon just 48 hours after forming, with an eyewall only 7 miles (11 km) wide. Shirley continued to the northwest, and struck northeastern Taiwan as a slightly weaker 140 mph (230 km/h) typhoon on the July 31. The mountainous terrain ripped apart the typhoon's circulation, and after crossing the Taiwan Strait, it made landfall on southeastern China as a tropical storm. Shirley turned northward while moving inland, and dissipated on August 2. An unusual feature of the storm was the development of a secondary center while approaching Taiwan.

Shirley's 140 mph (230 km/h) winds and torrential rains devastated Taiwan, overflowing many rivers and trapping thousands. Nearly a foot of rain was reported on the island, causing extensive road and property damage. Little crop damage occurred due to Typhoon Mary destroying much of it months before. In all, Typhoon Shirley caused 104 fatalities, destroyed or damaged 9,890 houses, and left 50,194 people homeless.

Typhoon Trix

Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationAugust 2 – August 13
Peak intensity230 km/h (145 mph) (1-min) 930 hPa (mbar)

Just one week after Shirley hit Taiwan, Typhoon Trix, which weakened from a peak of 145 mph (233 km/h), hit the northeastern part of the island with winds of 100 mph (160 km/h). Trix left four more dead and brought more severe flooding to the typhoon-ravaged country.

JMA Tropical Storm Ten

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationAugust 6 – August 9
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (1-min) 1000 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Virginia

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationAugust 7 – August 12
Peak intensity155 km/h (100 mph) (1-min) 980 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Virginia struck Shikoku and Honshū island in Japan with winds of 90 mph (140 km/h). 4 inches of rain fell over most of southern Japan. 2 people were killed and one was injured.[9]

Typhoon Wendy

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationAugust 10 – August 13
Peak intensity140 km/h (85 mph) (1-min) 990 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Storm Agnes

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationAugust 10 – August 18
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (1-min) 994 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Bess

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationAugust 15 – August 26
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (1-min) 980 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Carmen

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationAugust 15 – August 23
Peak intensity140 km/h (85 mph) (1-min) 975 hPa (mbar)

A sharp trough of low pressure organized into a tropical depression on August 16. It moved northward, quickly strengthening to an 85 mph (137 km/h) typhoon. Carmen lost intensity as it continued to the north, and made landfall on South Korea as a 50 mph (80 km/h) tropical storm on the 23rd. The storm brought 50-foot (15 m) waves to the Korean peninsula, flooding coastal cities and sinking ships offshore. In all, Carmen caused 24 casualties and $2 million in damage (1960 USD).

Carmen is known for having the largest eye of any tropical cyclone in recorded history, tied with Typhoon Winnie in 1997. Radar data from Okinawa, Japan indicated that it was more than 200 miles (320 km) across.[10][11]

Typhoon Della

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationAugust 17 – August 30
Peak intensity175 km/h (110 mph) (1-min) 970 hPa (mbar)

The monsoon trough spawned a tropical storm in the open Western Pacific on August 20. Della moved to the northwest, strengthening to a typhoon on the 22nd before looping to the north-northwest. After peaking at 110 mph (180 km/h), Della weakened and hit southern Japan as a minimal typhoon. It accelerated to the northeast and became extratropical on the 31st. A landslide on Nishinomiya killed 38 road workers, while another 17  people were killed throughout the country from heavy flooding. Damages from the storm were estimated at $19 million.[12]

Typhoon Elaine

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationAugust 18 – August 25
Peak intensity140 km/h (85 mph) (1-min) 975 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Faye

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationAugust 23 – August 31
Peak intensity230 km/h (145 mph) (1-min) 945 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Depression Gloria

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationAugust 30 – September 4
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (1-min) 1000 hPa (mbar)

JMA Tropical Storm Nineteen

Tropical storm (JMA)
 
DurationAugust 31 – September 1
Peak intensityWinds not specified 1008 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Storm Hester

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationSeptember 4 – September 11
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (1-min) 1000 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Depression Irma

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationSeptember 11 – September 19
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (1-min) 1000 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Judy

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationSeptember 23 – October 1
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (1-min) 980 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Kit

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationOctober 3 – October 13
Peak intensity165 km/h (105 mph) (1-min) 960 hPa (mbar)

A large circulation over the Western Pacific organized into a tropical depression on October 2. It moved westward, steadily strengthening to a peak of 100 mph (160 km/h). Kit made landfall on the eastern Philippines at that intensity on the 6th and quickly crossed the archipelago. It turned to the northwest over the South China Sea and struck eastern Hainan Island on the 11th. Kit turned to the southwest, and after weakening hit northeastern Vietnam as a minimal tropical storm on the 13th. Kit dissipated shortly thereafter.

Many small and large boats sank from Kit's 1000+ mile wide circulation, with 149 fishermen missing. In the Philippines, Kit's extensive rainfall caused severe damage to property and transportation damage. Especially damaged was the rice crop, which was affected during the rice harvesting season. In all, Kit caused 149 casualties (with 149 missing) and $3 million in damage. Extensive crop damage occurred as well in China.

Typhoon Lola

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationOctober 8 – October 17
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (1-min) 970 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Lola hit the Philippines just days after Kit made landfall, resulting in an additional $15  million in damage, much of it to the rice crop. 58 people were killed from the flooding, and heavy damage occurred to highways and communication systems.

Typhoon Mamie

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationOctober 11 – October 20
Peak intensity215 km/h (130 mph) (1-min) 940 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Mamie struck Iwo Jima with winds of 105 mph (169 km/h) then passed to the southeast of Tokyo. No damage was reported.[9]

Typhoon Nina

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 3-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationOctober 20 – October 28
Peak intensity205 km/h (125 mph) (1-min) 950 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Ophelia

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationNovember 25 – December 6
Peak intensity250 km/h (155 mph) (1-min) 925 hPa (mbar)

The most unusual tropical cyclone of the year began its life on November 21 in the open Western Pacific. The depression drifted, first to the west, then to the southeast, then back to the west, varying between a tropical depression and an open trough of low pressure. After a northward turn, it strengthened into a tropical storm on the 27th and turned back to the southwest. Ophelia turned to a west drift, and under favorable conditions, intensified into a typhoon on the 29th. It continued to strengthen as it crossed over the Caroline Islands, and became a super typhoon on the 30th. A day later it reached a peak of 155 mph (249 km/h), but a northward turn weakened it to 150 mph (240 km/h). Ophelia remained a Category 4 typhoons until December 4, when it began accelerating to the northeast over unfavorable conditions. After weakening to a tropical storm on the 6th, Ophelia became extratropical over the Northern Pacific Ocean. As an extratropical storm, it persisted until dissipating south of Alaska on the 8th. Ophelia brought heavy rains to the Caroline Islands, killing 2 and injuring 4. Many of the islands were covered in up to 2 feet (0.61 m) of water, and they experienced severe damage from Ophelia's strong winds. The name Ophelia was retired after this storm. Over the course of Ophelia's life, it traveled 5,000  miles.[13]

Typhoon Phyllis

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 3-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationDecember 11 – December 20
Peak intensity195 km/h (120 mph) (1-min) 965 hPa (mbar)

Other systems

Track of the unnamed storm that became Cyclone 10B

The China Meteorological Administration also monitored a severe tropical storm and several other tropical depressions during the course of the season.

  • June 22–27, 45 km/h (30 mph) 1000 mbar (hPa; 29.53 inHg)[14]
  • July 29 – August 3, 55 km/h (35 mph) 995 mbar (hPa; 29.38 inHg)[15]
  • August 5–7, 45 km/h (30 mph) 997 mbar (hPa; 29.44 inHg)[16]
  • August 13–16, 55 km/h (35 mph) 996 mbar (hPa; 29.41 inHg)[17]
  • September 15–16, 45 km/h (30 mph) 998 mbar (hPa; 29.47 inHg)[18]
  • September 22–27, 45 km/h (30 mph) 998 mbar (hPa; 29.47 inHg)[19]
  • Unnamed Severe Tropical Storm: September 28 – October 5, 95 km/h (60 mph) 992 mbar (hPa; 29.29 inHg)[20]
    • Storm crossed 100°E and entered the Northern Indian Ocean cyclone basin. This system ultimately developed into a very severe cyclonic storm, designated Cyclone 10B by the JTWC, with three-minute sustained winds of 120 km/h (75 mph) before striking East Pakistan (modern-day Bangladesh). There, the storm damaged or destroyed roughly 35,000 homes and killed an estimated 3,000 people.[21]
  • November 8–10, 45 km/h (30 mph) 1005 mbar (hPa; 29.68 inHg)[22]

Storm names

Since 1947, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center unofficially named typhoons in the Western Pacific Basin. This followed the widespread practice of naming storms during World War II map discussions after girlfriends. Before 1979, all names assigned to storms were female.[23][24][25]

  • Olive
  • Polly
  • Rose
  • Shirley
  • Trix
  • Virginia
  • Wendy
  • Agnes
  • Bess
  • Carmen
  • Della
  • Elaine
  • Faye
  • Gloria
  • Hester
  • Irma
  • Judy
  • Kit

Retirement

Following the 1960 season, Lucille and Ophelia's names were retired. The former was removed in light of the considerable loss of life in the Philippines; the latter was stricken due to its unusually long track. These were the first two names to ever be removed from the rotating naming list in the basin, though they were not replaced (although the names Lucy and Ora took their places in 1962 and 1963 respectively).[5]

See also

References

Specific
  • David Longshore (2008). Encyclopedia of Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones, New Edition. Facts on File Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-8160-6295-9.
General
  1. "Annual Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Storm Lucille" (PDF). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. United States Navy. 1961. pp. 37–40. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 25, 2018. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
  2. "1960 Lucille (1960146N08131)". International Best Track Archive. 2013. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
  3. Longshore, p. 400
  4. "Typhoon Leaves 250 Dead, Lost In Philippines' Worst Floods". The Milwaukee Sentinel. Manila, Philippines. United Press International. May 29, 1960. p. 1. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
  5. Xiaotu Lei and Xiao Zhou (Shanghai Typhoon Institute of China Meteorological Administration) (February 2012). "Summary of Retired Typhoons in the Western North Pacific Ocean". Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 1 (1): 23–32. doi:10.6057/2012TCRR01.03. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
  6. "150 Dead In Flood". Daytona Beach Sunday News-Journal. Manila, Philippines. Associated Press. May 30, 1960. p. 1. Retrieved April 30, 2013.
  7. Longshore, p. 71
  8. Longshore, p. 253
  9. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2009-12-24.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. Evans, Bill (22 May 2012). It's Raining Fish and Spiders. Hurricane Extremes: Google Ebooks. ISBN 9781429984829. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  11. Jeff Masters (July 10, 2015). "Category 3 Chan-hom: One of Shanghai's Strongest Typhoons on Record?". Weather Underground. Archived from the original on June 17, 2018. Retrieved April 25, 2018.
  12. Longshore, p. 93
  13. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2009-01-02.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. "1960 Missing (1960175N13115)". International Best Track Archive. 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  15. "1960 Missing (1960211N15115)". International Best Track Archive. 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  16. "1960 Missing (1960218N18119)". International Best Track Archive. 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  17. "1960 Missing (1960226N20117)". International Best Track Archive. 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  18. "1960 Missing (1960260N14119)". International Best Track Archive. 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  19. "1960 Missing (1960267N18116)". International Best Track Archive. 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  20. "1960 10B (1960273N13117)". International Best Track Archive. 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  21. "Relief Teams Work to Help East Pakistan". The Spokesman-Review. Dacca, East Pakistan. Reuters. October 18, 1960. p. 2. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  22. "1960 Missing (1960313N10119)". International Best Track Archive. 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  23. Landsea, Christopher W; Dorst, Neal M (June 1, 2014). "Subject: Tropical Cyclone Names: B1) How are tropical cyclones named?". Tropical Cyclone Frequently Asked Question. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hurricane Research Division. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015.
  24. 70th anniversary of women's names used for typhoons. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hurricane Research Division. December 4, 2014. Archived from the original on December 23, 2014. Retrieved December 8, 2014.
  25. Xiaotu Lei; Xiao Zhou (February 2012). "Summary of Retired Typhoons in the Western North Pacific Ocean". Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. KeAi. 1 (1): 23–32. doi:10.6057/2012TCRR01.03.
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