Questions tagged [vector-spaces]

For questions about vector spaces and their properties. More general questions about linear algebra belong under the [linear-algebra] tag. A vector space is a space which consists of elements called "vectors", which can be added and multiplied by scalars

This tag is for questions about vector spaces and their properties, as well mappings between vector spaces. More general questions about linear algebra belong under the tag.

A vector space consists of a set of elements called "vectors" and is associated with a field (a set with well-behaved notions of addition, multiplication, subtraction and division) called the "field of scalars". An individual vectors can be multiplied by elements of the field of scalars to produce a new vector in the vector space, and pairs of vectors can be added or subtracted to produce a new vector as well. A full introduction can be found on Wikipedia.

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How to tell if a set of vectors spans a space?

I want to know if the set $\{(1, 1, 1), (3, 2, 1), (1, 1, 0), (1, 0, 0)\}$ spans $\mathbb{R}^3$. I know that if it spans $\mathbb{R}^3$, then for any $x, y, z, \in \mathbb{R}$, there exist $c_1, c_2, c_3, c_4$ such that $(x, y, z) = c_1(1, 1, 1) +…
Javier
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A linear operator commuting with all such operators is a scalar multiple of the identity.

The question is from Axler's "Linear Algebra Done Right", which I'm using for self-study. We are given a linear operator $T$ over a finite dimensional vector space $V$. We have to show that $T$ is a scalar multiple of the identity iff $\forall S \in…
abeln
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If the field of a vector space weren't characteristic zero, then what would change in the theory?

In the book of Linear Algebra by Werner Greub, whenever we choose a field for our vector spaces, we always choose an arbitrary field $F$ of characteristic zero, but to understand the importance of the this property, I am wondering what would we lose…
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How to find a basis for the intersection of two vector spaces in $\mathbb{R}^n$?

What is the general way of finding the basis for intersection of two vector spaces in $\mathbb{R}^n$? Suppose I'm given the bases of two vector spaces U and W: $$ \mathrm{Base}(U)= \left\{ \left(1,1,0,-1\right), \left(0,1,3,1\right) \right\} $$ $$…
Cu7l4ss
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Effect of elementary row operations on determinant?

1) Switching two rows or columns causes the determinant to switch sign 2) Adding a multiple of one row to another causes the determinant to remain the same 3) Multiplying a row as a constant results in the determinant scaling by that constant. Using…
dfg
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What are some examples of infinite dimensional vector spaces?

I would like to have some examples of infinite dimensional vector spaces that help me to break my habit of thinking of $\mathbb{R}^n$ when thinking about vector spaces.
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What kind of matrices are non-diagonalizable?

I'm trying to build an intuitive geometric picture about diagonalization. Let me show what I got so far. Eigenvector of some linear operator signifies a direction in which operator just ''works'' like a stretching, in other words, operator preserves…
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What do mathematicians mean by "equipped"?

I am a mathematical illiterate, so I do not know what people mean when they say "equipped". For example, I say that a Hilbert space is a vector space equipped with an inner product. What does that actually mean? Obviously, one interpretation is to…
Olórin
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How to show that quotient space $X/Y$ is complete when $X$ is Banach space, and $Y$ is a closed subspace of $X$?

How to show that quotient space $X/Y$ is complete when $X$ is Banach space, and $Y$ is a closed subspace of $X$? Here's my attempt: Given a Cauchy sequence $\{q_n\}_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ in $X/Y$, each $q_n$ is an equivalence class induced by $Y$, I…
Metta World Peace
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Why study finite-dimensional vector spaces in the abstract if they are all isomorphic to $R^n$?

Timothy Gowers asks Why study finite-dimensional vector spaces in the abstract if they are all isomorphic to $R^n$? and lists some reasons. The most powerful of these is probably There are many important examples throughout mathematics of…
TripleA
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Every proper subspace of a normed vector space has empty interior

There is a conjecture: "The only subspace of a normed vector space $V$ that has a non-empty interior, is $V$ itself." (here, the topology is the obvious set of all open sets generated by the metric $||\cdot||$). I have a proof for the case $V$ is…
Somabha Mukherjee
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How to understand dot product is the angle's cosine?

How can one see that a dot product gives the angle's cosine between two vectors. (assuming they are normalized) Thinking about how to prove this in the most intuitive way resulted in proving a trigonometric identity:…
Leo
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Is there a vector space that cannot be an inner product space?

Quick question: Can I define some inner product on any arbitrary vector space such that it becomes an inner product space? If yes, how can I prove this? If no, what would be a counter example? Thanks a lot in advance.
Huy
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Pathologies in module theory

Linear algebra is a very well-behaved part of mathematics. Soon after you have mastered the basics you got a good feeling for what kind of statements should be true -- even if you are not familiar with all major results and counterexamples. If one…
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understanding of the "tensor product of vector spaces"

In Gowers's article "How to lose your fear of tensor products", he uses two ways to construct the tensor product of two vector spaces $V$ and $W$. The following are the two ways I understand: $V\otimes W:=\operatorname{span}\{[v,w]\mid v\in V,w\in…
user9464