Questions tagged [taylor-expansion]

Questions regarding the Taylor series expansion of univariate and multivariate functions, including coefficients and bounds on remainders. A special case is also known as the Maclaurin series.

The Taylor expansion is the power series expansion of a function at a point. It represents a function as an infinite sum with terms calculated from the function's derivatives at that point. More precisely, It is defined as $$ \sum^{\infty}_{n=0}\frac{f^{(n)}(a)}{n!}(x-a)^n=f(a)+\frac{f'(a)}{1!}(x-a)+\frac{f''(a)}{2!}(x-a)^2+\cdots $$

It happens often in applications that the Taylor expansion of $f$ at $a$ converges to $f$ (pointwise and locally uniformly) on some neighborhood of $a$: when this happens, the function is said to be analytic at $a$.

Applications:

A Taylor series is an idea used in computer science, calculus, and other kinds of higher-level mathematics. It is a series that is used to create an estimate (guess) of what a function looks like. Taylor Series are also used in power flow analysis of electrical power systems (Newton-Raphson method). Multivariate Taylor series is used in different optimization techniques; that is, you approximate your function as a series of linear or quadratic forms, and then successively iterate on them to find the optimal value.

References:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taylor_series

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Are there always singularities at the edge of a disk of convergence?

Take a function that is analytic at 0 and consider its Maclaurin Series. Here are some examples I'll refer to: $$\frac{1}{1-x} =\sum_{n=0}^\infty x^n$$ $$\frac{1}{1+x^2} =\sum_{n=0}^\infty(-1)^nx^{2n}$$ $$\ln(1-x)…
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Closed form for $ S(m) = \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{2^n \cdot n^m}{\binom{2n}n} $ for integer $m$?

What is the (simple) closed form for $\large \displaystyle S(m) = \sum_{n=1}^\infty \dfrac{2^n \cdot n^m}{\binom{2n}n} $ for integer $m$? Notation: $ \dbinom{2n}n $ denotes the central binomial coefficient, $ \dfrac{(2n)!}{(n!)^2} $. We have the…
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Settle a classroom argument - do there exist any functions that satisfy this property involving Taylor polynomials?

I'm going to apologize in advance; I might at some points say Taylor series instead of Maclaurin series. OK, so backstory: My calculus class recently went over Taylor series and Taylor polynomials. It seemed basic enough. Using the ratio test we…
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Understanding the Taylor expansion of a function

Suppose $$f(x) = \frac{1}{1+x^2}$$ We know this function is defined everywhere and is continuous everywhere and so on... Using the geometric series, we can write $$ \frac{1}{1+x^2} = \sum (-x^2)^n = \sum (-1)^n x^{2n} $$ But, this only converges…
ILoveMath
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Is the Maclaurin series expansion of $\sin x$ related to the inclusion-exclusion principle?

When I see the alternating signs in the infinite series expansion of $\sin x$, I'm reminded of the inclusion-exclusion principle. Could there be any way to visualize it in such a way? Also, is there an elementary reason why the Taylor series…
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How to check the real analyticity of a function?

I recently learnt Taylor series in my class. I would like to know how is to possible to distinguish whether a function is real-analytic or not. First thing to check is if it is smooth. But how can I know whether the taylor series converges to the…
math
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On what interval does a Taylor series approximate (or equal?) its function?

Suppose I have a function $f$ that is infinitely differentiable on some interval $I$. When I construct a Taylor series $P$ for it, using some point $a$ in $I$, does $f(x) = P(x)$ for all $x$ in $I$? I'm confused as to whether Taylor series…
Cam
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What are the properties of the roots of the incomplete/finite exponential series?

Playing around with the incomplete/finite exponential series $$f_N(x) := \sum_{k=0}^N \frac{z^k}{k!} \stackrel{N\to\infty}\longrightarrow e^z$$ for some values on alpha (e.g. solve sum_(k=0)^19 z^k/(k!) = 0 for z), I made a few observations: The…
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How to derive this series

The function $\dfrac1{1-x}$, equal to $$1 + x + x^2 + x^3 + \cdots,$$ can also be developed according to the series $$1 + \frac{x}{1 + x} + \frac{1\cdot2\cdot x^2}{(1 + x)(1 + 2x)} + \frac{1\cdot2\cdot3\cdot x^3}{(1 + x)(1 + 2x)(1 + 3x)} + \cdots…
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Multivariate Taylor Expansion

I am in confidence with Taylor expansion of function $f\colon R \to R$, but I when my professor started to use higher order derivatives and multivariate Taylor expansion of $f\colon R^n \to R$ and $f\colon R^n \to R^m$ I felt lost. Can somean…
UNKNOWN
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Third degree Taylor series of $f(x) = e^x \cos{x} $

Suppose you have the function: $$f(x) = e^x \cos{x} $$ and you need to find the 3rd degree Taylor Series representation. The way I have been taught to do this is to express each separate function as a power series and multiply as necessary for the…
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Exponential of powers of the derivative operator

A translation operator The Taylor series of a function $f$ is $$f(x)=\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{(\partial_x^nf)(a)}{n!}(x-a)^n$$ where $\partial_x$ is the derivative operator. Expanding about…
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Is it possible to detect periodicity of an analytic function from its Taylor series coefficients at a point?

Given the Taylor series $\sum a_k (x - x_0)^k$ of an analytic function, it is possible to determine whether the function is periodic more-or-less directly from the coefficients $a_0, a_1, \ldots$ of the series (equivalently, the derivatives…
Travis Willse
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Is there an approximation to the natural log function at large values?

At small values close to $x=1$, you can use taylor expansion for $\ln x$: $$ \ln x = (x-1) - \frac{1}{2}(x-1)^2 + ....$$ Is there any valid expansion or approximation for large values (or at infinity)?
smörkex
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Substituting for Taylor series

So my question is simple: Why is substitution valid? I mean it seems counter-intuitive to me mainly because of the chain rule. For example: The Taylor series of $e^{x^2}$ is simply done by substituting $x^2$ wherever $x$ goes in the original sum…
DLV
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