Questions tagged [sequences-and-series]

For questions concerning sequences and series. Typical questions concern, but are not limited to: identifying sequences, identifying terms, recurrence relations, $\epsilon-N$ proofs of convergence, convergence tests, finding closed forms for sums. For questions on finite sums, use the (summation) tag instead.

Sequences and series are often considered as a main part of part of calculus, in addition to limits, continuity, differentiation and integration.

A sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed. There are special types of sequences, such as arithmetic sequences (or arithmetic progressions), where the next term is a constant more than the previous; harmonic progressions, which is formed by taking the reciprocal of each term of an arithmetic progression; logarithmic progression, which is formed from a series whose progression getting smaller; and geometric progressions, where the next term is a constant multiplied by the previous term.

A sequence can be given by a direct formula (e.g. $a_n = 2^n + 3$), or by a recurrence relation. In a recurrence relation, the relation between the next term and the earlier terms is given. An example is the recurrence relation $F_{n+2}=F_{n+1}+F_n, n \geq 0.$ Together with the initial terms $F_0=0$ and $F_1=1$, this recurrence relation defines the famous Fibonacci sequence.

A series is formed by summing a sequence. A typical question is: When the number of summed terms goes to infinity, does the sum approach a finite limit? In other words, is it convergent? Several tests, such as the ratio test, the root test, the limit comparison test, the integral test, etc. can help to answer these questions.

Important note. Questions about guessing the next number in a sequence, with no explicit mathematical context, will usually be quickly closed. Consider posting these questions at Puzzling Stack Exchange instead.

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How to prove this identity $\pi=\sum\limits_{k=-\infty}^{\infty}\left(\frac{\sin(k)}{k}\right)^{2}\;$?

How to prove this identity? $$\pi=\sum_{k=-\infty}^{\infty}\left(\dfrac{\sin(k)}{k}\right)^{2}\;$$ I found the above interesting identity in the book $\bf \pi$ Unleashed. Does anyone knows how to prove it? Thanks.
Neves
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Convergence of $\sqrt{n}x_{n}$ where $x_{n+1} = \sin(x_{n})$

Consider the sequence defined as $x_1 = 1$ $x_{n+1} = \sin x_n$ I think I was able to show that the sequence $\sqrt{n} x_{n}$ converges to $\sqrt{3}$ by a tedious elementary method which I wasn't too happy about. (I think I did this by showing that…
Aryabhata
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"Closed" form for $\sum \frac{1}{n^n}$

Earlier today, I was talking with my friend about some "cool" infinite series and the value they converge to like the Basel problem, Madhava-Leibniz formula for $\pi/4, \log 2$ and similar alternating series etc. One series that popped into our…
user17762
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Every subsequence of $x_n$ has a further subsequence which converges to $x$. Then the sequence $x_n$ converges to $x$.

Is the following true? Let $x_n$ be a sequence with the following property: Every subsequence of $x_n$ has a further subsequence which converges to $x$. Then the sequence $x_n$ converges to $x$. I guess that it is true but I am not sure how to prove…
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$\infty = -1 $ paradox

I puzzled two high school Pre-calc math teachers today with a little proof (maybe not) I found a couple years ago that infinity is equal to -1: Let x equal the geometric series: $1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 \ldots$ $x = 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 \ldots$ Multiply…
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The limit of truncated sums of harmonic series, $\lim\limits_{k\to\infty}\sum_{n=k+1}^{2k}{\frac{1}{n}}$

What is the sum of the 'second half' of the harmonic series? $$\lim_{k\to\infty}\sum\limits_{n=k+1}^{2k}{\frac{1}{n}} =~ ?$$ More precisely, what is the limit of the above sequence of partial sums?
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$\sum k! = 1! +2! +3! + \cdots + n!$ ,is there a generic formula for this?

I came across a question where I needed to find the sum of the factorials of the first $n$ numbers. So I was wondering if there is any generic formula for this? Like there is a generic formula for the series: $$ 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + \cdots + n =…
vikiiii
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Does every prime divide some Fibonacci number?

I am tring to show that $\forall a \in \Bbb P\; \exists n\in\Bbb N : a|F_n$, where $F$ is the fibonacci sequence defined as $\{F_n\}:F_0 = 0, F_1 = 1, F_n = F_{n-1} + F_{n-2}$ $(n=2,3,...)$. How can I do this? Originally, I was trying to show that…
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What is the average rational number?

Let $Q=\mathbb Q \cap(0,1)= \{r_1,r_2,\ldots\}$ be the rational numbers in $(0,1)$ listed out so we can count them. Define $x_n=\frac{1}{n}\sum_{k=1}^nr_n$ to be the average of the first $n$ rational numbers from the list. Questions: What is…
jdods
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Is there a slowest rate of divergence of a series?

$$f(n)=\sum_{i=1}^n\frac{1}{i}$$ diverges slower than $$g(n)=\sum_{i=1}^n\frac{1}{\sqrt{i}}$$ , by which I mean $\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}(g(n)-f(n))=\infty$. Similarly, $\ln(n)$ diverges as fast as $f(n)$, as $\lim_{n \rightarrow…
Meow
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Is there a simple function that generates the series; $1,1,2,1,1,2,1,1,2...$ or $-1,-1,1,-1,-1,1...$

I'm thinking about this question in the sense that we often have a term $(-1)^n$ for an integer $n$, so that we get a sequence $1,-1,1,-1...$ but I'm trying to find an expression that only gives every 3rd term as positive, thus it would…
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Does $\sum _{n=1}^{\infty } \frac{\sin(\text{ln}(n))}{n}$ converge?

Does $\sum _{n=1}^{\infty } \dfrac{\sin(\text{ln}(n))}{n}$ converge? My hypothesis is that it doesn't , but I don't know how to prove it. $ζ(1+i)$ does not converge but it doesn't solve problem here.
Darius
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Are the sums $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{(n!)^k}$ transcendental?

This question is inspired by my answer to the question "How to compute $\prod_{n=1}^\infty\left(1+\frac{1}{n!}\right)$?". The sums $f(k) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{(n!)^k}$ (for positive integer $k$) came up, and I noticed that $f(1) = e-1$ was…
marty cohen
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What are some mathematically interesting computations involving matrices?

I am helping designing a course module that teaches basic python programming to applied math undergraduates. As a result, I'm looking for examples of mathematically interesting computations involving matrices. Preferably these examples would be…
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When is an infinite product of natural numbers regularizable?

I only recently heard about the concept of $\zeta$-regularization, which allows the evaluation of things like $$\infty != \prod_{k=1}^\infty k = \sqrt{2\pi}$$ and $$\infty \# = \prod_{k=1}^\infty p_k = 4\pi^2$$ where $n\#$ is a primorial, and $p_k$…