Question on the meaning, history, and usage of mathematical symbols and notation. Please remember to mention where (book, paper, webpage, etc.) you encountered any mathematical notation you are asking about.

Before asking a question on the site, please check if you can find your answer in Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols or the book *A History of Mathematical Notations*.

Alternatively, a textbook or paper *usually* takes the time to explain the notation they're using; please remember to mention where you've seen the notation you are asking about.