Questions tagged [irrational-numbers]

Questions about real numbers not expressible as the quotient of two integers. For questions on determining whether a number is irrational, use the (rationality-testing) tag instead.

An irrational number is a real number that cannot be expressed as a quotient of two integers, i.e. cannot be expressed in the form $\dfrac{a}{b}$, with $a,b\in\mathbb{Z}$. We write $\mathbb{I}=\mathbb{R}\setminus\mathbb{Q}$.

Some examples of irrational numbers are $\sqrt{2}, e, \pi$ and $\zeta(3)$.

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Prove $x = \sqrt[100]{\sqrt{3} + \sqrt{2}} + \sqrt[100]{\sqrt{3} - \sqrt{2}}$ is irrational

Prove $x = \sqrt[100]{\sqrt{3} + \sqrt{2}} + \sqrt[100]{\sqrt{3} - \sqrt{2}}$ is irrational. I can prove that $x$ is irrational by showing that it's a root of a polynomial with integer coefficients and use rational root theorem to deduce it must be…
Rashmirathi
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Is there an elementary proof that $\sum_{n=1}^\infty {1\over n^s\{n\pi\}}<\infty$ for some $s>0$?

Edit: David Speyer's answer made me realize a couple of things and I would like to clarify. Sorry if the length of this is getting out of hand. First, it is now clear that no estimate can be obtained for $\sigma(\alpha)$ without also obtaining an…
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Is there any real number except 1 which is equal to its own irrationality measure?

Is there any real number except $1$ which is equal to its own irrationality measure? If so, then what is the cardinality of the set of all such numbers? Is the set dense on any interval? Is it measurable?
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Does this prove that no sequential squares have a ratio of 2?

The goal: Prove that there is no integer $k$ such that ${(k+1)^2\over{k^2}}=2$. My proof: If ${(k+1)^2\over{k^2}}=2$, then ${{k+1}\over{k}}=\sqrt2$, and if $k$ is an integer, $k+1$ is also an integer. This implies that $\sqrt2$ is a rational…
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Double limit of $\cos^{2n}(m! \pi x)$ at rationals and irrationals

I stumbled upon this "relation" (is the name correct?): $$ \lim_{m \to \infty} \lim_{n \to \infty} \cos^{2n}(m! \pi x) = \begin{cases} 1,&x\text{ is rational}\\ 0,&x\text{ is irrational}\end{cases} $$ How is it called and why is it so? I'm really…
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How irrational quantities physically exist in nature?

We know that an irrational no has well defined decimal values upto infinite decimal places. These irrational quantities exist in nature in some kind of measurements. For an example, circumference of a circle is '2πr' , so if radius is rational then…
Alpha Simple
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Is $\frac{1}{11}+\frac{1}{111}+\frac{1}{1111}+\cdots$ an irrational number?

Obviously: $$\frac{1}{10}+\frac{1}{100}+\frac{1}{1000}+\cdots=0.1111\dots=\frac{1}{9}$$ is a rational number. Now, if we make terms with demoninators in the form: $$q_n=\sum_{k=0}^{n} 10^k$$ Then the sum will…
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What is the simplest way to prove that the logarithm of any prime is irrational?

What is the simplest way to prove that the logarithm of any prime is irrational? I can get very close with a simple argument: if $p \ne q$ and $\frac{\log{p}}{\log{q}} = \frac{a}{b}$, then because $q^\frac{\log{p}}{\log{q}} = p$, $q^a = p^b$, but…
Dan Brumleve
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Can every irrational number be written in terms of finitely many rational numbers?

Consider the irrational number $\sqrt{2}$. It can be written in terms, i.e., in a closed form expression, of two rational numbers as $2^{\frac{1}{2}}$. Does it hold in general that every irrational number can be written in terms, i.e., in a closed…
chtenb
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Sum of two periodic functions is periodic?

I have following paragraph taken from the Stanford's study material. Question: Is the sum of two periodic functions periodic? Answer: I guess the answer is no if you are Mathematician, yes if you are an Engineer i.e. no if you believe in…
Bibek Subedi
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Are all transcendental numbers a zero of a power series?

So I came across the concept of extending the notion of irrationality to higher degree polynomials. The base case of this is standard irrationality. That is, a number is irrational if it cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers. This is…
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Why must we distinguish between rational and irrational numbers?

The difference between rational and irrational numbers is always stated as: rational numbers can be written as the ratio of two integers, and irrational numbers can't. However, why do mathematicians make a distinction between these two types of…
mage
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Irrationality proofs not by contradiction

Per now, I have basically come upon proofs of the irrationality of $\sqrt{2}$ (and so on) and the proof of the irrationality of $e$. However, both proofs were by contradiction. When thinking about it, it seems like the definition of irrationality…
Fredrik Meyer
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If $\beta=0.{a_1}^{k}{a_2}^{k}{a_3}^{k}\cdots\in\mathbb Q$, then $\alpha=0.a_1a_2a_3\cdots\in\mathbb Q$?

Question : For every even $k\ge 4$, is the following $(\star)$ true? $$\begin{align}\text{If $\beta=0.{a_1}^{k}{a_2}^{k}{a_3}^{k}\cdots\in\mathbb Q$, then $\alpha=0.a_1a_2a_3\cdots\in\mathbb Q$.}\qquad(\star)\end{align}$$ Here, $a_i$ is the $i$-th…
mathlove
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Does every sequence of rationals, whose sum is irrational, have a subsequence whose sum is rational

Assume we have a sequence of rational numbers $a=(a_n)$. Assume we have a summation function $S: \mathscr {L}^1 \mapsto \mathbb R, \ \ S(a)=\sum a_n$ ($\mathscr {L}^1$ is the sequence space whose sums of absolute values converges). Assume also that…