Questions tagged [integer-partitions]

Use this tag for questions related to ways of writing a positive integer as a sum of positive integers.

In number theory and combinatorics, a partition of a positive integer $n$ is a way of writing $n$ as a sum of positive integers. Two sums that differ only in the order of their summands (also called parts) are considered the same partition. For example, all of the partitions of $4$ are $1 + 1 + 1 + 1$, $2 + 1 + 1$, $2 + 2$, $3 + 1$, or $4$.

The number of partitions of $n$ is given by the partition function $p(n)$. For the example above, $p(4) = 5$.

Partitions can be visualized graphically with Ferrers diagrams.

Partitions have applications in symmetric polynomials, the symmetric group, and group representations.

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Why are asymptotically one half of the integer compositions gap-free?

Question summary The number of gap-free compositions of $n$ can already for quite small $n$ be very well approximated by the total number of compositions of $n$ divided by $2$. This question seeks to understand why. The details A composition of an…
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Very curious properties of ordered partitions relating to Fibonacci numbers

I came across some interesting propositions in some calculations I did and I was wondering if someone would be so kind as to provide some explanations of these phenomenon. We call an ordered Partition of a positive integer $n$ as the way of writing…
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Making Change for a Dollar (and other number partitioning problems)

I was trying to solve a problem similar to the "how many ways are there to make change for a dollar" problem. I ran across a site that said I could use a generating function similar to the one quoted below: The answer to our problem (293) is the …
Peter
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Visualizing the Partition numbers (suggestions for visualization techniques)

So Ken Ono says that the partition numbers behave like fractals, in which case I'd like to try to find an appropriately illuminating way of visualizing them. But I'm sort of stuck at the moment, so here I'm asking for suggestions for visualization…
graveolensa
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The number of partitions of $n$ into distinct parts equals the number of partitions of $n$ into odd parts

This seems to be a common result. I've been trying to follow the bijective proof of it, which can be found easily online, but the explanations go over my head. It would be wonderful if you could give me an understandable explanation of the proof and…
rapidash
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Feeding real or even complex numbers to the integer partition function $p(n)$?

Like most people, when I first encountered $n!$ in grade school, I graphed it, then connected the dots with a smooth curve and reasoned that there must be some meaning to $\left(\frac43\right)!$ — and, true to form, there was! $$\displaystyle…
futurebird
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Ellipse 3-partition: same area and perimeter

Inspired by the question, "How to partition area of an ellipse into odd number of regions?," I ask for a partition an ellipse into three convex pieces, each of which has the same area and the same perimeter. The perimeter includes both arcs of the…
Joseph O'Rourke
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Closed-form Expression of the Partition Function $p(n)$

I feel like I have seen news that a paper was recently published, at most a few months ago, that solved the well-known problem of finding a closed-form expression for the partition function $p(n)$ which enumerates the number of integer partitions of…
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Partition of ${1, 2, ... , n}$ into subsets with equal sums.

The following is one of the old contest problems (22nd All Soviet Union Math Contest, 1988). Let $m, n, k$ be positive integers such that $m \ge n$ and $1 + 2 + ... + n = mk$. Prove that the numbers $1, 2, ... , n$ can be divided into $k$ groups in…
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On the inequality $\frac{1+p(1)+p(2) + \dots + p(n-1)}{p(n)} \leq \sqrt {2n}.$

For all positive integers $n$, $p(n)$ is the number of partitions of $n$ as the sum of positive integers (the partition numbers); e.g. $p(4)=5$ since $4=1+1+1+1=1+1+2=1+3=2+2=4.$ Prove that: $\dfrac{1+p(1)+p(2) + \dots + p(n-1)}{p(n)} \leq…
jack
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Prime Partition

A prime partition of a number is a set of primes that sum to the number. For instance, {2 3 7} is a prime partition of $12$ because $2 + 3 + 7 = 12$. In fact, there are seven prime partitions of $12$: {2 2 2 2 2 2}, {2 2 2 3 3}, {3 3 3 3}, {2 2 3…
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Number of possible combinations of x numbers that sum to y

I want to find out the number of possible combinations of $x$ numbers that sum to $y$. For example, I want to calculate all combination of 5 numbers, which their sum equals to 10. An asymptotic approixmation is also useful. This question seems to be…
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Partitioning a natural number $n$ in order to get the maximum product sequence of its addends

Suppose we have a natural number $n \ge 0$. Given natural numbers $\alpha_1,\ldots,\alpha_k$ such that $k\le n$ $\sum_i \alpha_i = n$ what is the maximum value that $\Pi_i \alpha_i$ can take? I'm quite sure that there is a theorem telling me the…
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Count the number of integer solutions to $x_1+x_2+\cdots+x_5=36$

How to count the number of integer solutions to $x_1+x_2+\cdots+x_5=36$ such that $x_1\ge 4,x_3 = 11,x_4\ge 7$ And how about $x_1\ge 4, x_3=11,x_4\ge 7,x_5\le 5$ In both cases, $x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4,x_5$ must be nonnegative integers. Is there a…
geraldgreen
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A question on partitions of n

Let $P$ be the set of partitions of $n$. Let $\lambda$ denote the shape of a particular partition. Let $f_\lambda(i)$ be the frequency of $i$ in $\lambda$ and let $a_\lambda(i) := \# \lbrace j : f_\lambda(j) \geq i \rbrace$. For example: $n=5,~…
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