For questions in chaos theory.

Chaos theory is a field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines including physics, engineering, economics, biology, and philosophy.

Chaos theory studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions, an effect which is popularly referred to as the butterfly effect.

Small differences in initial conditions (such as those due to rounding errors in numerical computation) yield widely diverging outcomes for such dynamical systems, rendering long-term prediction impossible in general.

The theory was pioneered by Lorenz and Devaney, who states the 'three laws of chaos' as:

- it must be sensitive to initial conditions
- it must be topologically mixing
- it must have dense periodic orbits