Questions tagged [calculus]

For basic questions about limits, continuity, derivatives, integrals, and their applications, mainly of one-variable functions. For questions about convergence of sequences and series, this tag can be use with more specialized tags.

Calculus is the branch of mathematics studying the rate of change of quantities, which can be interpreted as slopes of curves, and the lengths, areas and volumes of objects. Calculus is sometimes divided into differential and integral calculus, which are concerned with derivatives

$$\frac{\mathrm{d}y}{\mathrm{d}x}= \lim_{\Delta x \to 0} \frac{\Delta y}{\Delta x}$$

and integrals

$$\int_a^b f(x)\,\mathrm{d}x = \lim_{\Delta x \to 0} \sum_{k=0}^n f(x_k)\ \Delta x_k,$$

respectively. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus relates these two concepts.

While ideas related to calculus were known for some time (Archimedes' method of exhaustion was a form of calculus), it was not until the independent work of Newton and Leibniz that the modern elegant tools and ideas of calculus were developed. Riemann and Lebesgue later extended the ideas of integration. More recently, the Henstock–Kurzweil integral has led to a more satisfactory version of the second part of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

Even so, many years elapsed until mathematicians such as Cauchy and Weierstrass put the subject on a mathematically rigorous footing; it was Weierstrass who formalized the definition of continuity of a function, proved the intermediate value theorem, and proved the Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem.

Source: Wolfram Mathworld

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Finding the limit of $\frac {n}{\sqrt[n]{n!}}$

I'm trying to find $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{n}{\sqrt[n]{n!}} .$$ I tried couple of methods: Stolz, Squeeze, D'Alambert Thanks! Edit: I can't use Stirling.
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Is the derivative the natural logarithm of the left-shift?

(Disclaimer: I'm a high school student, and my knowledge of mathematics extends only to some elementary high school calculus. I don't know if what I'm about to do is valid mathematics.) I noticed something really neat the other day. Suppose we…
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Ways to evaluate $\int \sec \theta \, \mathrm d \theta$

The standard approach for showing $\int \sec \theta \, \mathrm d \theta = \ln|\sec \theta + \tan \theta| + C$ is to multiply by $\dfrac{\sec \theta + \tan \theta}{\sec \theta + \tan \theta}$ and then do a substitution with $u = \sec \theta + \tan…
Mike Spivey
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Cardioid in coffee mug?

I've been learning about polar curves in my Calc class and the other day I saw this suspiciously $r=1-\cos \theta$ looking thing in my coffee cup (well actually $r=1-\sin \theta$ if we're being pedantic.) Some research revealed that it's called a…
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Does L'Hôpital's work the other way?

As referred in Wikipedia (see the specified criteria there), L'Hôpital's rule says, $$ \lim_{x\to c}\frac{f(x)}{g(x)}=\lim_{x\to c}\frac{f'(x)}{g'(x)} $$ As $$ \lim_{x\to c}\frac{f'(x)}{g'(x)}= \lim_{x\to c}\frac{\int f'(x)\ dx}{\int g'(x)\…
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An integral involving Airy functions $\int_0^\infty\frac{x^p}{\operatorname{Ai}^2 x + \operatorname{Bi}^2 x}\mathrm dx$

I need your help with this integral: $$\mathcal{K}(p)=\int_0^\infty\frac{x^p}{\operatorname{Ai}^2 x + \operatorname{Bi}^2 x}\mathrm dx,$$ where $\operatorname{Ai}$, $\operatorname{Bi}$ are Airy…
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Limit of sequence in which each term is defined by the average of preceding two terms

We have a sequence of numbers $x_n$ determined by the equality $$x_n = \frac{x_{n-1} + x_{n-2}}{2}$$ The first and zeroth term are $x_1$ and $x_0$.The following limit must be expressed in terms of $x_0$ and $x_1$ $$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty} x_n…
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Don't see the point of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

$$\frac{d}{dx}\int_a^xf(t)\,dt$$ I would love to to understand what exactly is the point of FTC. I'm not interested in mechanically churning out solutions to problems. It doesn't state anything that isn't already known. Prior to reading about…
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Arithmetic-geometric mean of 3 numbers

The arithmetic-geometric mean$^{[1]}$$\!^{[2]}$ of 2 numbers $a$ and $b$ is denoted $\operatorname{AGM}(a,b)$ and defined as follows: $$\text{Let}\quad a_0=a,\quad b_0=b,\quad a_{n+1}=\frac{a_n+b_n}2,\quad b_{n+1}=\sqrt{a_n…
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Evaluate the integral: $\int_{0}^{1} \frac{\ln(x+1)}{x^2+1} \mathrm dx$

Compute $$\int_{0}^{1} \frac{\ln(x+1)}{x^2+1} \mathrm dx$$
user 1591719
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Why is the area under a curve the integral?

I understand how derivatives work based on the definition, and the fact that my professor explained it step by step until the point where I can derive it myself. However when it comes to the area under a curve for some reason when you break it up…
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How to prove that exponential grows faster than polynomial?

In other words, how to prove: For all real constants $a$ and $b$ such that $a > 1$, $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{n^b}{a^n} = 0$$ I know the definition of limit but I feel that it's not enough to prove this theorem.
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Are calculus and real analysis the same thing?

I guess this may seem stupid, but how calculus and real analysis are different from and related to each other? I tend to think they are the same because all I know is that the objects of both are real-valued functions defined on $\mathbb{R}^n$, and…
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Is the "determinant" that shows up accidental?

Consider the class of rational functions that are the result of dividing one linear function by another: $$\frac{a + bx}{c + dx}$$ One can easily compute that, for $\displaystyle x \neq \frac cd$ $$\frac{\mathrm d}{\mathrm dx}\left(\frac{a + bx}{c +…
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Construct a function which is continuous in $[1,5]$ but not differentiable at $2, 3, 4$

Construct a function which is continuous in $[1,5]$ but not differentiable at $2, 3, 4$. This question is just after the definition of differentiation and the theorem that if $f$ is finitely derivable at $c$, then $f$ is also continuous at $c$.…
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