Continued fractions don't work the way you think they do. Let $$x = a_0 + \cfrac1{a_1+\cfrac 1{a_2 +\cdots}},$$ which we will abbreviate as $x = [a_0; a_1, a_2, \ldots]$. Then probably the most important thing to know about continued fractions is $$a_0 < [a_0; a_1, a_2] < [a_0; a_1, a_2, a_3, a_4] < \ldots < x
< \ldots < [a_0; a_1, a_2, a_3] < [a_0; a_1] $$

Your fraction, $P =[2; 3, 5, 7, 11, \ldots]$ has the property that

$$\frac {37}{16} = [2;3,5] < P < [2;3] = \frac 73$$
so we know that $2.3125 < P < 2.333\ldots$ and it is therefore impossible that $P=e$.

Continued fractions converge really fast. If you compute the first 13 terms and find that the result is approximately 2.31303673, then the result of carrying the fraction to infinity will be some number extremely close to 2.31303673. It is impossible that the remaining terms could budge the result as far as $2.7$. There is a theorem that if $x = [a_0; a_1, \ldots]$ and $[a_0; a_1\ldots a_k] = \frac{p_k}{q_k}$, then $$\left\lvert x - \frac{p_k}{q_k}\right\rvert < \frac1{q_kq_{k+1}} < \frac1{q_k^2}.$$ The $q_k$ increase exponentially quickly in relation to $k$, at a rate of at least $\phi^n$, where $\phi = \frac12(1+\sqrt 5)$, so the difference between $x$ and its approximation by a finite continued fraction of length $n$ is at least as fast as $O(\phi^{-2n})$. The most slowly-converging continued fraction is $[1;1,1,1,1\ldots]$, and you can see for yourself how quickly it converges to its limit, which also happens to be $\phi$.