**Main idea.** The proof that follows is based on the infinite descent, i.e., we shall show that if $(x,y,z)$ is a solution, then there exists another triplet $(k,l,m)$ of smaller integers, which is also a solution, and this leads apparently to a contradiction.

Assume instead that $x, y, z\in\mathbb Z\smallsetminus\{0\}$ satisfy the equation (replacing $z$ by $-z$)
$$x^3 + y^3 + z^3 = 0,$$
with $x, y$ and $z$ pairwise coprime. (Clearly at least one is negative.) One of them should be even, whereas the other two are odd. Assume $z$ to be even.

Then $x$ and $y$ are odd. If $x = y$, then $2x^3 = −z^3$, and thus $x$ is also even, a contradiction. Hence $x\ne y$.

As $x$ and $y$ are odd, then $x+y$, $x-y$ are both even numbers. Let
$$
2u = x + y, \quad 2v = x − y,
$$
where the non-zero integers $u$ and $v$ are also coprime and of different parity (one is even, the other odd), and
$$
x = u + v\quad \text{and}\quad y = u − v.
$$
It follows that
$$
−z^3 = (u + v)^3 + (u − v)^3 = 2u(u^2 + 3v^2). \tag{1}
$$
Since $u$ and $v$ have different parity, $u^2 + 3v^2$ is an odd number. And since $z$ is even, then $u$ is even and $v$ is odd. Since $u$ and $v$ are coprime, then
$$
{\mathrm{gcd}}\,(2u,u^2 + 3v^2)={\mathrm{gcd}}\,(2u,3v^2)\in\{1,3\}.
$$

Case I. $\,{\mathrm{gcd}}\,(2u,u^2 + 3v^2)=1$.

In this case, the two factors of $−z^3$ in $(1)$ are coprime. This implies that $3\not\mid u$ and that both the two factors are perfect cubes of two smaller numbers, $r$ and $s$.
$$
2u = r^3\quad\text{and}\quad u^2 + 3v^2 = s^3.
$$
As $u^2 + 3v^2$ is odd, so is $s$. We now need the following result:

**Lemma.** *If $\mathrm{gcd}\,(a,b)=1$, then every odd factor of $a^2 + 3b^2$ has this same form.*

*Proof.* See here.

Thus, if $s$ is odd and if it satisfies an equation $s^3 = u^2 + 3v^2$, then it can be written in terms of two coprime integers $e$ and $f$ as
$$
s = e^2 + 3f^2,
$$
so that
$$
u = e ( e^2 − 9f^2) \quad\text{and}\quad
v = 3f ( e^2 − f^2).
$$
Since $u$ is even and $v$ odd, then $e$ is even and $f$ is odd. Since
$$
r^3 = 2u = 2e (e − 3f)(e + 3f),
$$
the factors $2e$, $(e–3f )$, and $(e+3f )$ are coprime since $3$ cannot divide $e$.
If $3\mid e$, then $3\mid u$, violating the fact that $u$ and $v$ are coprime. Since the three factors on the right-hand side are coprime, they must individually equal cubes of smaller integers
$$
−2e = k^3,\,\,\,
e − 3f = l^3,\,\,\,
e + 3f = m^3,
$$
which yields a smaller solution $k^3 + l^3 + m^3= 0$. Therefore, by the argument of infinite descent, the original solution $(x, y, z)$ was impossible.

Case II. $\,{\mathrm{gcd}}\,(2u,u^2 + 3v^2)=3$.

In this case, the greatest common divisor of $2u$ and $u^2 + 3v^2$ is $3$.
That implies that $3\mid u$, and one may express $u = 3w$ in terms of a smaller integer, $w$. Since $4\mid u$, so is $w$; hence, $w$ is also even. Since $u$ and $v$ are coprime,
so are $v$ and $w$. Therefore, neither $3$ nor $4$ divide $v$.

Substituting $u$ by $w$ in $(1)$ we obtain
$$
−z^3 = 6w(9w^2 + 3v^2) = 18w(3w^2 + v^2)
$$
Because $v$ and $w$ are coprime, and because $3\not\mid v$, then $18w$ and $3w^2 + v^2$
are also coprime. Therefore, since their product is a cube, they are each the cube of
smaller integers, $r$ and $s$:
$$
18w = r^3 \quad\text{and}\quad
3w^2 + v^2 = s^3.
$$
By the same lemma, as $s$ is odd and equal to a number of the form $3w^2 + v^2$,
it too can be expressed in terms of smaller coprime numbers, $e$ and $f$:
$$
s = e^2 + 3f^2.
$$
A straight-forward calculation shows that
$$
v = e (e^2 − 9f^2) \quad\text{and}\quad w = 3f (e^2 − f^2).
$$
Thus, $e$ is odd and $f$ is even, because $v$ is odd. The expression for $18w$ then becomes
$$
r^3 = 18w = 54f (e^2 − f^2) = 54f (e + f) (e − f) = 3^3 \times 2f (e + f) (e − f).
$$
Since $3^3$ divides $r^3$ we have that $3$ divides $r$, so $(r /3)^3$ is an integer
that equals $2f (e + f) (e − f)$. Since $e$ and $f$ are coprime, so are the three factors $2e$, $e+f$, and $e−f$; therefore, they are each the cube of smaller integers, $k$, $l$, and $m$.
$$
−2e = k^3,\,\,\,
e + f = l^3,\,\,\,
e − f = m^3,
$$
which yields a smaller solution $k^3 + l^3 + m^3= 0$. Therefore, by the argument of infinite descent, the original solution $(x, y, z)$ was impossible.

**Note.** See also here.