I'm examining a proof I have read that claims to show that the Cartesian product $\mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N}$ is countable, and as part of this proof, I am looking to show that the given map is surjective (indeed bijective), but I'm afraid that I can't see why this is the case. I wonder whether you might be able to point me in the right direction?

Indeed, the proof begins like this:

"For each $n \in \mathbb{N}$, let $k_n, l_n$ be such that $n = 2^{k_n - 1} \left(2l_n - 1 \right)$; that is, $k_n - 1$ is the power of $2$ in the prime factorisation of $n$, and $2 l_n - 1$ is the (necessarily odd) number $\frac{n}{2^{k_n - 1}}$."

It then states that $n \mapsto \left(k_n , l_n \right)$ is a surjection from $\mathbb{N}$ to $\mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N}$, and so ends the proof.

I can intuitively see why this should be a bijection, I think, but I'm not sure how to make these feelings rigorous?

I suppose I'd say that the map is surjective since given any $\left(k_n , l_n \right) \in \mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N}$ we can simply take $n$ indeed to be equal to $2^{k_n - 1} \left(2l_n - 1 \right)$ and note that $k_n - 1 \geq 0$ and thus $2^{k_n - 1}$ is both greater or equal to one so is a natural number (making the obvious inductive argument, noting that multiplication on $\mathbb{N}$ is closed), and similarly that $2 l_n - 1 \geq 2\cdot 1 - 1 = 1$ and is also a natural number, and thus the product of these two, $n$ must also be a natural number. Is it just as simple as this?

I suppose my gut feeling in the proving that the map is injective would be to assume that $2^{k_n - 1} \left(2 l_n - 1 \right) = 2^{k_m - 1} \left(2 l_m - 1 \right)$ and then use the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic to conclude that $n = m$. Is this going along the right lines? The 'implicit' definition of the mapping has me a little confused about the approach.

On a related, but separate note, I am indeed aware that if $K$ and $L$ are any countable sets, then so is $K \times L$, so trivially, taking the identity mapping we see trivially that this map is bijective and therefore that $\mathbb{N}$ is certainly countable (!), and thus so is $\mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N}$. Hence, it's not really the statement that I'm interested in, but rather the exciting excursion into number theory that the above alternative proof provides.