I would like a concrete example of the determination of a dual space.

How to frame the example is up to you, but if you wish me to frame it, then consider the space spanned by the columns of

\begin{equation}V = \left[\begin{array}{rr}1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \\ 0 & 2\end{array}\right].\end{equation}

Working in real numbers (or in complex numbers if you prefer), what is the dual space of $V$, and why?

Am I just to take the transpose (adjoint? no, transpose, I think) of the Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse of $V$, or is there something more to it? If just the Moore-Penrose, then the space spanned by the columns of

\begin{equation}[V^+]^T=\left[(V^\dagger V)V^\dagger\right]^T=\left[\begin{array}{rr}1 & 0 \\ 0 & \frac 1 5 \\ 0 & \frac 2 5\end{array}\right],\end{equation}

where $V^+$ symbolizes the Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse and $V^\dagger$ the adjoint, would be the dual space.

Or is my question just confused?

Even if my answer *were* right (I suppose that it isn't), I do not get the point of the exercise. I do not understand what it is all about. Do you?

Incidentally, I know what a kernel is, if that helps.

(Reason for the question: I am an electrical engineer trying to learn differential geometry, Hamiltonian mechanics and general relativity; the dual space arises in this study; and I do not yet grasp the concept.)

See also this answer to a related question.

**UPDATE**

In light of the *accepted* answer, I now believe that the columns of $[V^+]^T$ are *covectors* rather than the basis of a dual space. Apparently, I had my definitions confused.

The belief might lead to a new question regarding the relationship, if any, between covectors and the dual space, insofar the books I am reading seem to imply that such a relationship exists; but that would be a question for another day.

Incidentally, for the benefit of future readers, I have modified the notation of the question as originally asked to match the answerer's notation.