I am trying to understand why induction is valid. For instance why would this 'proof' not be valid under the principle of proof by induction ? :

$$ \sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{k} \lt \infty$$ because using induction on the statement $$S(n) = \sum_{1}^{n} \frac{1}{k} \lt \infty$$ - "$S(1) < \infty$ is true and "$S(n) < \infty$" implies "$S(n+1) < \infty$" since $S(n+1) \lt S(n) + \frac{1}{n}$