There are basically 3 senses of "Hecke algebra", and they are related to each other. The modular-form sense is a special case of all three.

The oldest version is that motivated by modular forms, if we think of modular forms as functions on (homothety classes of) lattices: the operator $T_p$ takes the average of a $\mathbb C$-valued function over lattices of index $p$ inside a given lattice. Viewing a point $z$ in the upper half-plane as giving the lattice $\mathbb Z z + \mathbb Z$ makes the connection to modular forms of a complex variable.

One important generalization of this idea is through repn theory, realizing that when modular forms are recast as functions on adele groups, the p-adic group $GL_2(\mathbb Q_p)$ acts on modular forms $f$. To say that $p$ does *not* divide the level becomes the assertion that $f$ is *invariant* under the (maximal) compact subgroup $GL_2(\mathbb Z_p)$ of $GL_2(\mathbb Q_p)$. Some "conversion" computations show that $T_p$ and its powers become *integral* operators (often mis-named "convolution operators"... despite several technical reasons *not* to call them this) of the form $f(g) \rightarrow \int_{GL_2(\mathbb Q_p)} \eta(h)\,f(gh)\,dh$, where $\eta$ is a left-and-right $GL_2(\mathbb Z_p)$-invariant compactly-supported function on $GL_2(\mathbb Q_p)$. The convolution algebra (yes!) of such functions $\eta$ is the (spherical) Hecke algebra on $GL_2(\mathbb Q_p)$.

A slightly larger, non-commutative convolution algebra of functions on $GL_2(\mathbb Q_p)$ consists of those left-and-right invariant by the *Iwahori* subgroup of matrices $\pmatrix{a & b \cr pc & d}$ in $GL_2(\mathbb Z_p)$, that is, where the lower left entry is divisible by $p$. This algebra of operators still has clear structure, with structure constants depending on the residue field cardinality, here just $p$. (The Iwahori subgroup corresponds to "level" divisible by $p$, but not by $p^2$.) This is the Hecke algebra attached to the *affine* Coxeter group $\hat{A}_1$.

Replacing $p$ by $q$, and letting it be a "variable" or "indeterminate" gives an example of another generalization of "Hecke algebra".

The latter situation also connects to "quantum" stuff, but I'm not competent to discuss that.

Edit: by now, there are several references for the relation between "classical Hecke operators" (on modular forms) and the group-theoretic, or representation-theoretic, version. Gelbart's 1974 book may have been the first generally-accessible source, though Gelfand-PiatetskiShapiro's 1964 book on automorphic forms certainly contains some form of this. Since that time, Dan Bump's book on automorphic forms certainly contains a discussion of the two notions, and transition between the two. My old book on Hilbert modular forms contains such a comparison, also, but the book is out of print and was created in a time prior to reasonable electronic files, unfortunately.