I am comfortable with the different sizes of infinities and Cantor's "diagonal argument" to prove that the set of all subsets of an infinite set has cardinality strictly greater than the set itself. So if we have a set $\Omega$ and $|\Omega| = \aleph_i$, then (assuming continuum hypothesis) the cardinality of $2^{\Omega}$ is $|2^{\Omega}| = \aleph_{i+1} > \aleph_i$ and we have $\aleph_{i+1} = 2^{\aleph_i}$.

I am fine with these argument.

What I don't understand is why should there be a smallest $\infty$? Is there a proof (or) an axiom that there exists a smallest $\infty$ and that this is what we address as "countably infinite"? or to rephrase the question "why can't I find a set whose power set gives us $\mathbb{N}$"?

The reason why I am asking this question is in "some sense" $\aleph_i = \log_2(\aleph_{i+1})$. I do not completely understand why this process should stop when $\aleph_i = \aleph_0$.

(Though coming to think about it I can feel that if I take an infinite set with $\log_2 \aleph_0$ elements I can still put it in one-to-one correspondence with the Natural number set. So Is $\log_2 \aleph_0 = \aleph_0$ (or) am I just confused? If $n \rightarrow \infty$, then $2^n \rightarrow \infty$ faster while $\log (n) \rightarrow \infty$ slower and $\log (\log (n)) \rightarrow \infty$ even slower and $\log(\log(\log (n))) \rightarrow \infty$ even "more" slower and so on).

Is there a clean (and relatively elementary) way to explain this to me?

(I am totally fine if you direct me to some paper (or) webpage. I tried googling but could not find an answer to my question)